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Logical Reasoning with Diagrams and Sentences


Logical Reasoning with Diagrams and Sentences includes two pieces of software:

  • Hyperproof, a natural deduction proof environment for giving and checking formal proofs involving both diagrams and sentences;
  • Submit, a program that allows students to submit exercises done with the above programs to the Grade Grinder, the online grading service.

Grade reports are returned to the student and, if requested, to the student's instructor, eliminating the need for tedious checking of homework. Both programs are available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Instructors do not need to use the programs themselves in order to be able to take advantage of their pedagogical value.



Hyperproof is a tool for building formal proofs in a natural deduction format. Unlike most proof environments Hyperproof permits any step to contain either a diagram or sentence. Formal inference rules allow the inference of sentences from diagrams and vice versa.

The immediate feedback that Hyperproof provides, in verifying each proof and marking steps that do not check out properly, makes it possible for students to correct and learn from their mistakes without the intervention of an instructor.


Submit is a very different application. It is used to send exercise files created in the other three applications to the Grade Grinder. The student must enter a registration id, which is provided as part of the purchase, in order to use Submit. He or she must also enter their name and email address. The instructor's name and email address are optional. After the Grade Grinder verifies the student's Book Number, name, and email address, it receives the files. The files are graded and a grade report is sent out, by email, from the Grade Grinder to the student. If the student has chosen to submit to an instructor as well, the instructor's name and email address are verified and an email is sent to him or her.

...For more about Grade Grinder, click here .